At present, China is in the process of rapid urbanization. The scale of the city is constantly expanding, and it plays a very important role in promoting economic, social and human development and stimulating the overall development level of the country. However, with the increasing pressure on urban environmental protection, energy conservation, transportation, and industrial transformation, new urban development models and management tools are urgently needed to improve urban development.
With the rapid development and wide application of information technology, the concept of â€œsmart cityâ€ is coming to the fore. More and more cities have proposed to build smart cities as a way of transforming development in the â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€, so the future construction of smart cities will set off a new wave of climax in China. As a perfect combination of information technology and urban construction, smart cities involve many technologies.
The article mainly discusses the technical basis of smart cities in China, and analyzes the limitations and technical bottlenecks of smart city applications according to China's current environment, and proposes that innovative technology is the key to creating smart cities.
The accumulation of cultural material and the advancement of science and technology are gradually evolving along with the city, and the driving force of urban development has gradually turned into the result of wisdom, that is, the masses of people can enjoy the services and products brought by innovative technology without interruption. At present, the construction of smart cities has been valued by the state and vigorously promoted by various governments. More and more smart cities will be presented to the public. The so-called smart cities refer to the scientific and rational urban development concept, according to the latest generation. information technology, the Internet and on the basis of pan-perception comprehensive information on the realization among people, objects, urban functional systems seamlessly with collaborative linkage of intelligent self-aware, self-optimizing, and thus the people's livelihood, environmental protection, public security, urban functions Business needs, such as business activities, respond intelligently, forming a safe, convenient, high-school, green urban form with sustainable endogenous power. The smart city realizes the optimization and upgrading of the urban system, making the urban system perfect, smarter, more coordinated and more developed, making the people and things in the city smarter and more harmonious, and making the life of the people in the city happier.
1. Three technical foundations of smart city
The construction of a smart city requires the combination of technological innovation, public awareness, and government management, and technological innovation is the cornerstone of building a smart city. â€œInformationâ€ is the core of wisdom, so â€œinformation technologyâ€ is the core technology that supports smart cities.
1.1 Widespread communication technology allows smart cities to have a nervous system
When a person wants to transmit all kinds of information that he sees, hears, and touches to the brain, he needs a nervous system all over the body. For a smart city, having such a nervous system is the most fundamental requirement for achieving wisdom. The ubiquitous communication network is like the nervous system of the city. Only with it can information be accessible.
1.2 The popularity of Internet technology, making the ability of wisdom close to the ordinary people
Before the Internet technology, information processing was only a matter of large computer equipment gathered in a few dedicated computer rooms, and had little to do with ordinary people. Although the information can be transmitted, the scope of information transmission is very limited, and it is far from reaching the end of the city. Internet technology fundamentally changes the way humans acquire and process information, so that any ordinary people can access and generate information at will. The ability to be intelligent is only close to the ordinary people, and a smart city can be realized.
1.3 The development of embedded technology, let the ability of wisdom expand to the object
From a technical perspective, â€œsmart cityâ€ is a city information system based on network information. The difference in intelligence ability comes from the difference in information acquisition ability. Smart cities not only need more people to acquire and generate information at any time. The infrastructure in the city also needs to be able to automatically collect and dynamically monitor information. From a technical point of view, it is the ability of various devices to have independent computing and networking. The development of embedded technology makes this possible. Therefore, embedded technology is one of the technical foundations of smart cities, and it enables the ability of wisdom. Expand from people to items.
2. Application limitations and technical bottlenecks of smart cities
2.1 Smart City Application Limitations
Most of the current smart city applications are simple scenarios for handling data collection and data transmission. Although there are certain areas in simple data collection and data transmission modes, they cannot cope with some complicated fields. In our real world, there are still many complicated situations that require different types of nodes to cooperate in the application field of intelligent computing. Moreover, these simple data collection and data transmission can only be limited to areas where data security, real-time and reliability are not high. In the event of data theft, tampering, etc., it will not cause much serious consequence. However, for some data errors, losses, delays, areas that will cause significant losses, such as: medical surgery control, train traffic control, large-scale mechanical equipment operation control, etc., due to constraints, such areas of the Internet of Things have not yet touched .
In the typical application of smart cities, equipment generally works in a more suitable environment, while in the real environment, there are quite a few applications that require equipment to operate in a rather harsh environment, and even some special industry equipment may face extreme heat. And extremely harsh environments such as low temperatures and sudden temperature changes, but our sensor technology is still unable to achieve this. China's current smart city application has begun to see scale, but at most thousands of nodes work together, far from tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, millions of massive node scales, with the increase of node size, nodes, networks The access capability and data processing capability requirements will increase exponentially, so new requirements are imposed on the technical characteristics of node networking speed, node management, protocol efficiency, and data concurrency.
2.2 Smart City Technology Bottleneck
The limitations of the smart city application analyzed above are largely due to technical bottlenecks. Solving the technical bottleneck, breaking the limits and expanding the demand will make the smart city have a broader development space. At present, we mainly have four technical bottlenecks.
First, the sensor technology bottleneck. How to launch smaller, stronger, and cheaper sensors. The development of smart cities is mainly to arrange a large number of sensors, so that these sensors and items are closely combined to become part of the items, so the sensor is not only miniaturized, but such miniaturized nodes not only have considerable processing power, but also need Low energy consumption, however, such small and high-performance sensors can only be used in the cutting-edge field and cannot be applied on a large scale.
Second, the communication network technology bottleneck. How to achieve both high capacity and high performance. Many applications in smart cities will be automated without human intervention, which is very different from human communication behavior. From the perspective of scale, it may have to face tens of millions, or even hundreds of millions of massive nodes, the scale will far exceed the original communication scale.
Third, the bottleneck of platform processing technology. How to handle and manage massive sensing information. How to deal with massive sensing information in time is another technical bottleneck faced by smart city development. With the deepening of smart city construction, it is necessary to use cloud computing and other technologies to promote the continuous development of platform processing technology and solve the storage, classification and processing of massive data. Retrieving demand can break this limitation.
Fourth, the security technology bottleneck. How to deal with more complex IoT security issues. At this stage, the issue of information security has not received enough attention. In fact, security is one of the key issues to be solved in the development of smart cities. It will directly determine the development prospects of smart cities.
3. Innovative technology promotes urbanization
3.1 vigorously promote the development of sensing technology
Smart cities first need to acquire information through the world of perception. The development of perceptual technology is the premise of the development of smart cities. Perceptual technology actually contains two different technologies: sensors and wireless sensor networks. Perceptual technology needs to continue to develop toward high performance, low energy consumption, miniaturization, and low cost, in order to provide rich imagination space for various smart city applications and expand the scope of smart city applications. A sensor is a device that converts a physical or chemical quantity into an electrical signal that is easy to utilize.
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a multi-hop self-organizing network system formed by a large number of sensor nodes deployed in a certain area and formed by wireless communication. The purpose is to collaboratively perceive, collect, and process information about the perceived objects in the network coverage area and send them to the observer. The core technologies of wireless sensor networks mainly focus on network topology control technology, multi-hop reliable data interaction technology, channel resource scheduling technology, physical layer technology, collaborative computing and processing technology, and distributed information sensing technology. The wireless sensor network provides a new intelligent communication and control means with its intelligent, low-power and self-organizing characteristics. It is the most effective solution for obtaining sensor information on a large scale and at low cost. The key technologies of the wireless sensor network include: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), IEEE802.15.4, Zigbee/ZigbeePro, Z-Wave, Wireless-HART, Bluetooth, and NFC.
3.2 Promote network capacity enhancement
In the initial stage of the current smart city, when the number of Internet of Things applications is still small, the existing network can basically meet the communication requirements of the smart city, but various problems have begun to appear gradually; with the deepening of the development of smart cities, As the number of connected services expands, the network will inevitably exert tremendous pressure, and may even further affect the existing normal communication between people. Therefore, it is necessary to study the adaptability of communication networks. Based on the existing networks, research and develop network capability improvements that adapt to and meet the characteristics of smart city communication, and the communication network operation and maintenance system that suits it. The main research contents It includes the following aspects: network layer service feature management, network resource allocation mechanism, network performance optimization mechanism, flexible QoS system, flexible network security capability, and mobility management mechanism. Among them, IPv6 technology and cloud computer technology are the main technologies. IPv6 is the abbreviation of InternetProtocolVersion6. It is the next-generation IP protocol designed by IETF (InternetEngineeri-ngTaskForce, Internet Engineering Task Force) to replace the current version of IP protocol IPv4.
It has a larger address space. The length of the IP address in IPv6 is 128 bits, and the support for automatic address configuration is added. The IPv6 address allocation follows the principle of clustering, which simplifies the IP packet structure and improves routing and forwarding. Efficiency; enhanced support for multicast and flow control, increased data encryption at the network layer, and verification of IP packets, enhancing network security; better meeting the massive nodes of the Internet of Things, high security The demand for characteristics such as sex is the development direction of Internet of Things technology. Cloud computing aggregates computing, storage, service components, network software and other resources distributed on the network. Based on the way of resource virtualization, it provides users with convenient and fast services. It can realize distributed and parallel processing of computing and storage. The main characteristics of cloud computing are mainly these aspects: delivering services in a highly scalable and flexible manner; using Internet technologies and methods to develop and deliver services; resource virtualization and automatic management and configuration of resources; and enabling the distribution of massive data Parallel processing; low cost and transparent to users.
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