I. Planting: Pomelo trees like warm, moist, and need fertilizer water. The soil layer is required to be rich and fertile. The teak tree should pay special attention to the soil after the soil is more fertilizer, the water is more abundant, or the water source is in good condition. 1. Colonization time. Generally, it is suitable for the spring and autumn rainy season, from the end of February to the end of April in spring, and from mid-September to mid-October in autumn. Conditional, other seasons can also be colonized, but it is not suitable for planting at the end of winter and summer drought conditions. 2. Planting density. The plant spacing is 4x4 meters or 4x5 meters, and the average acre is about 40 plants. It can also be dwarfed, densely planted, and planted 50-60 plants per mu. 3. Colonization method. (1) Before the planting, dig a large pit of 1 meter square, apply a large amount of head machine fertilizer and appropriate amount of phosphate fertilizer as the base fertilizer, and return the soil 20-30 cm above the ground. (2) When planting, gently place the seedlings in the holes, plant them with loose soil, compact the fine mud around the roots by hand, and expose the joints to the ground. (3) After planting, the nest is 20 cm above the ground and filled with water.
Second, soil cultivation: 1, deep turn to expand the hole, ripening the soil. Deeply change the soil, the matured soil must start from the construction of the park and expand year by year. Young trees can be dug in the outer groove of the plant and deep in the year. The adult pomelo garden can carry out a groove-like deep ditch in the periphery of the canopy, with a depth and a width of about 0.5-0.7 m. The organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer such as green manure can be layered and buried, or it can be turned over every year, every year, or every year. 2, a large variety of green manure. Use land to raise land. Large green manure covers the ground, preventing erosion in summer, reducing soil temperature, increasing air humidity and suppressing weeds, and increasing soil organic matter and soil fertility. If the legumes, vegetables, etc. are interplanted, the early benefits can be increased, and the stems, stubbles and leaves are covered and turned into soil to increase soil organic matter. 3, cultivating soil. In combination with weeding in cultivating, it is usually 3-4 times a year, that is, after harvesting in winter, summer or autumn, combined with sowing and intercropping. The ploughing depth is 10-15 cm (in combination with intercropping, appropriate deepening), the closer the trunk is, the shallower it is, so as not to lose large roots. The soil should be carried out before the onset of the dry season or after harvesting in winter. In the gentle slope zone, the soil is ploughed once every 3-4 years. In the place where the slope is large and the erosion is serious, the soil is cultivated once every other year.
Third, fertilization. The sapling trees are small, the roots are young and tender, and it is appropriate to apply thinner and thinner. It can be applied 5-6 times a year. For the result tree, it is generally necessary to apply 4 times of fertilizer, that is, Yangyang fertilizer germination fertilizer, stable fruit fertilizer and strong fruit fertilizer. 1, also Yangfei (base fertilizer): before and after fruit picking, its fertilization amount accounts for half of the annual fertilization amount, should apply a large amount of green manure, compost, ring manure, cake fertilizer and other delayed fertilizer, and with quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer. 2, germination fertilizer (pre-flowering fertilizer): generally carried out in 2-3 months, this fertilizer should be based on quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, mainly applied human feces, appropriate combination of urea. 3, stable fruit fertilizer: in the first half of the first half of the fruit drop in June, the application of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, can be applied to the decomposed human and feces, sprayed with 1% leachate of superphosphate. 4, strong fruit fertilizer: application in the middle and late June, the application of quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer.
4. Irrigation and drainage. The teak tree is evergreen, with a large annual growth of the shoots, a long fruiting period, and large leaves and large water requirements. The cultivated pomelo trees must be irrigated to ensure their water requirements. The irrigation should be based on the later water needs of the individual pomelo trees and the drought conditions at that time. In general, the whole year's growth and development process requires an appropriate amount of water, especially the spring bud germination and flowering period, the fruit growth period is most sensitive, there is spring drought and drought, then irrigation must be carried out. The terrain is low, where the groundwater level is high or the rainy season pays attention to drainage. Before the rainy season or during the rainy season, the pomelo garden drainage system should be inspected at any time, and the drainage should be timely adjusted to ensure unimpeded drainage.
Fifth, plastic trimming. The pomelo tree is strong and the tree is tall. Under the condition of sufficient water and water in the young age, the top edge is strong and the shoots grow upright. It is easy to form a trunk with obvious tree shape. The new shoots are strong and strong, and the branches are drooping due to heavy fruit. Bending downwards, the tree forms an umbrella shape, the light is not easy to penetrate into the inside of the canopy and the fruit is small. The result of the pomelo tree is mostly inside the canopy, which is a two-year-old leafless branch (commonly known as claw claw). According to the characteristics of the growth characteristics of the pomelo tree, it is advisable to use â€œvariable side trunk shapeâ€ and natural â€œhappy shapeâ€ in production. The dry height should be 40-60 cm, the main branch spacing should be 30-40 cm, and 5-6 main bodies should be cultivated. branch. When pruning the pomelo tree, it should be â€œtop heavy, square light, heavy outside, light insideâ€, that is, in the dense foliage around the crown, the trimming is sparse, the top branches are heavier, and the inner branches are lightly trimmed, so that the inner light of the canopy is good. The result is many and the quality is good. Generally, the slender leafless branches on the 3-4 year old side branches of the canopy are excellent result mother branches and must be preserved. In the outer periphery of the canopy is too long or disturbs the tree shape, affecting the lateral branch of the tree balance, should pay attention to sparse and short cut, to achieve the purpose of ventilation and ventilation.
Sixth, pest control. There are many pests and diseases that endanger the pomelo tree. Commonly, there are mites, mites, leaf miner, anthracnose, etc. The prevention and treatment should be based on the occurrence characteristics of various diseases, combined with spraying and prevention. 1. Before the flowering period from the end of February to the beginning of April, spray 2 times in a row to prevent and control cockroaches, and combine with other pests to control pesticides: insecticide + acaricide + fungicide. 2, the young fruit after the flowering period from mid-May to late June, continuous spraying 2 times, mainly to control mites, combined with other pests, pesticides: insecticide + fungicide. 3, autumn from mid-July to early September, continuous spraying 3-4 times, mainly to control the leaf miner, concurrently treat Swallowtail, anthracnose, etc., the use of pesticides: insecticide + fungicide. 4, from mid-September to early 10th is the second peak of cockroach hazards. It should be sprayed 1-2 times to kill cockroaches, and at the same time treat other pests and diseases, using pesticides: insecticide + acaricide + fungicide. 5, spray a stone sulphur mixture clearing garden in winter.
Insecticides can be used alternately with lesbian, trichlorfon, chlorpyrifos, and heroes. The fungicides can be selected from carbendazim, thiophanate, and daifen zinc. The acaricide can be selected. , èž¨ èž¨ ç‰ ç‰ äº¤æ›¿ alternately spray, spray should be even and thoughtful. Grapefruit quality and high yield cultivation management technology
1, strong shoots, and promote the turn to green. When the spring shoots of the tree is 4-7 cm, the spray is 15%, 600 times more paclobutrazol, so that the spring shoots are short and strong, the inflorescences are strong, and the spring shoots are sprayed with green shoots to promote the leaves to turn green. 2, the mulch covered, moisturizing will be warm. In summer and autumn, the soil moisture is high, and the orchard is covered with plastic film or covered with low-lying vegetables, peanuts and legumes. Summer high temperature, drought and moisturizing, inhibiting weeds, is conducive to the growth and development of pomelo trees, increase the yield of pomelo trees, and increase the economic benefits of pomelo gardens. 3, timely pollination, improve the fruit. (1), artificial pollination choose sunny weather, take the blooming pomelo male flowers back, wrap the pollen with white paper, put it into the bag and tie it around the waist of the person's waist, wait for 24 hours, take out the pollen, join After mixing borax 0.1%, use a brush or cotton swab to place on the head of the pomelo flower. (2), insect pollination with 0.2% urea plus 0.3% sugar plus 1.2% bee sugar plus water 98% mixed, sprayed pomelo stigma with a micro-sprayer at 8-10 pm on sunny days, continuous spray 2- 3 times, induce bees to pollinate and improve fruit setting. 4, timely fruit thinning. When the young fruit grows to the peas, the first fruit thinning is carried out, mainly to remove the small fruit, the diseased fruit and the deformed fruit. Generally, according to the tree's ability to withstand 1-1.5 times, when the fruit grows to the big finger, the second fruit is thinned. At this time, the fruit that is required to be preserved is uniform in size and evenly distributed. 5. Transfer the young fruit. When the pomelo fruit grows to the size of the egg, the dense young fruit or the double fruit is cut and transferred to the less ordered branch, so that the nutrient supply is sufficient, the fruit is grown, and the yield is increased. 6, preserved flowers and fruits. In the flower bud period, spray 0.1% green Fenwei foliar fertilizer plus 0.1% borax, add 0.2% molybdic acid amine plus 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 0.3% urea, spray the crown twice (every 7 days); When you spend three-quarters of the flowers, use the anti-fallin 1 bag and add gibberellin 2010-6 to dissolve the crown with alcohol. After the physiological fruit drop period, use cytokinin (ba) 1 gram of alcohol to dissolve and then water to 20010-6. Apply the fruit to the fruit from mid-April to early May, and apply the fruit pedicle once from late May to mid-June. 7, do a good job of disease prevention. (1), control flower buds in the adult emergence of the adult emergence after the rain, with 3% of furan granules 0.8 kg per acre mixed river sand 25 kg spread the ground. Spray the crown 1-2 times with 600% trichlorfon (or 80% dichlorvos emulsion) 600 times. The artificially removed flower buds were washed in boiling water and buried deep. (2), prevention and treatment of sputum, sputum sputum in the first half of May in the first generation of young larvae hatching blasting mixture 1-2 times, washing wood mixture (washing powder 0.5 parts + diesel 1 part) preparation 80- 100 times liquid or 40% speed emulsifier 1500-2000 times liquid alternately used. (3), prevention and treatment of red and yellow spiders. Use 5% Nisolon 2000 times plus 40% sulphur phosantite 800 times solution or ketone 2000 times solution plus a small amount of diesel mixed spray crown 1-2 times. (4), dry in winter. Use 6 kg of quicklime, add 1 kg of stone sulphur mixture, add 1 kg of salt, add 50 g of omethoate, and apply 15 kg of water to the trunk of the pomelo tree to prevent pests and diseases. 8. Strengthen the management of fertilizer and water. The sapling period is dominated by vegetative growth, and the canopy of the early knot is cultivated. Therefore, every year before and after spring, summer and autumn, apply 1 time to promote the fertilizer and strong fertilizer, and apply 5-8 kg of farmyard manure plus 0.1-0.2 kg of urea. After entering the result period, generally in early February Spring fertilizer, plant application of 50 kg of farmyard manure plus urea 0.3-0.4 kg. In mid-May, the fruit fertilizer was applied wisely, and the plant applied 0.1% green Fenwei foliar fertilizer 1-2 times or 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.3% urea mixed with root dressing. In mid-July, the fruit was applied to promote the shoot fertilizer, and 60 kg of the farmer's powder was added with 1 kg of superphosphate and 2 kg of grass ash. In the middle and late September, deep application of fruit and fruit to send the manure fertilizer (also known as re-cultivation of fertilizer), planting 60 kg of farmer's fertilizer and 1 kg of cooking cake to restore the tree potential. 9, do a good job of plastic trim. (1), picking up the heart in time. When the growth length of spring and summer is about 30 cm, the topping is carried out in time, and the excess buds are removed. (2), pruning and shaping. In the autumn, measures such as support, pull, and hoisting are adopted for the strong tree, which increases the opening angle, moderates the growth potential, and promotes early results. (3), ring cutting and promoting flowers. In late September, a sharp knife was used to stagger the loop on the side branches three times to prevent the nutrients produced by the leaves from being transported downward, increasing the organic nutrient accumulation of the leaves and effectively increasing the amount of flowers in the next year. (4) Control the late autumn shoots and winter shoots. Late autumn shoots and winter shoots issued after the first ten days of November will consume a lot of nutrients, which is not conducive to the next year's result. When the autumn leaves turn green and mature, spray 300 times of paclobutrazol inhibitor 1-2 times, which can effectively avoid winter shoots. (5), trimming and sparse. After fruit picking, remove 1-2 long branches in the upper part of the canopy to enhance the inner light transmission. In the pruning, we must master the principle of light weight and light weight. It is necessary to reduce the number of cuts, trim the time, cut off overlapping branches, twist branches, pests, competition branches, dry branches and fruit handles. The branches should be divided into three sparse ones and five leaves, so that the branches are evenly distributed. Try to keep the branches in the canopy, the short fruit branches, the lower legs without leaf branches, and the drooping branches, so that the canopy is ventilated and transparent, achieving high yield and stable yield. 10. Harvest at the right time. Generally, it is suitable for harvesting in late November, and it is suitable for sunny harvesting. When harvesting, transporting and storing, it is lightly handled. When storing and preserving, it can be washed with 2,4-d plus carbendazim solution, and then stored in a single bag of fresh-keeping bag.
Scientific fertilization of pomelo: 1. Fertilization of 1-3 years old saplings. In order to strengthen the growth of young trees, early and high yield, the fertilization should be applied multiple times in combination with the characteristics of the multiple shoots of the pomelo tree. Fertilization before the tip can promote the hair tips and make the shoots grow robust. Topdressing is based on quick-acting fertilizer. Fertilization method: diligent application of less application, spring shoots more fertilizer. The fertilization time was 2, 5, and 7 months, respectively. If it is expected to start the results in the second year after planting, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be appropriately increased during the filling period of autumn shoots to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. In order to promote flowers, 0.3-0.6% of strong trees can be sprayed during the flower bud differentiation period (December). Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3 times; weak tree spray 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 0.4-0.5% urea 3-4 times. Should also add a large amount of organic fertilizer, green manure and phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, paving the upper layer of the ground, promote the development of horizontal roots, in order to facilitate early fruit and high yield. Second, the fertilization of the result tree. The results of tree fertilization are generally divided into four fats, that is, Yangfei, rushing fertilizer, stable fruit fertilizer and strong fruit fertilizer. 1, also Yang Fei (base fertilizer). Fertilization time: before and after fruit picking; the important role of fertilization: due to the flowering of the pomelo tree, the result is a large amount of nutrients. In order to restore the tree potential, promote flower bud differentiation, enrich the fruiting branches, and ensure the nutrient needs of the next year, the base fertilizer must be applied. The amount of fertilizer applied generally accounts for 50% of the annual fertilization amount; the type of fertilizer used: late-effect fertilizer such as green manure, compost, cake fertilizer, etc., combined with the application of quick-acting fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer (the best superphosphate). Fertilization method: dig an annular groove around the canopy, the phosphate fertilizer is below, and the urea is above. 2, germination fertilizer (flower bud fertilizer). Fertilization time: 2-3 months; the important role of fertilization: can promote the spring shoots, the need to supply the flowering results, lay a good foundation for the results of the year and the results of the next year's robust; can overcome the results of the years, Achieve high yield and stable production. Therefore, fertilization is an important measure to increase production; the type of fertilization should be based on quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, such as human excrement or urea, ammonium sulfate and so on. 3, stable fruit fertilizer. Fertilization time: should be in the first half of the second physiological fruit drop (June); the important role of fertilization: to compensate for the nutrients and nutrients needed for flowering, reduce fruit drop, increase fruiting rate, ensure high yield; fertilizer Type: Available nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, can also be applied to human excrement, spray 1% of superphosphate leaching solution. 4, strong fruit fertilizer. Fertilization time: before the autumn shoot, from May to June; the important role of fertilization: from July to August, the fruit grows rapidly, and at the same time, a large number of autumn shoots are taken out, which creates a contradiction between nutrients and water; fertilization type: in order to accelerate fruit growth To improve the quality of the fruit, and at the same time promote the occurrence of autumn shoots, it is necessary to apply quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. For the adult fruit tree, the base fertilizer is generally applied; in February, 150 kg of animal fat is applied per plant, and oil is added at the same time; in May, 100 kg of animal fat is applied per plant; in July, 150 kg of animal fat is applied per plant, and an appropriate amount of superphosphate is added.
The plastic trimming of the pomelo tree: the pomelo tree is trimmed by plastic shaping, which makes the crown shape full and achieves the goal of high yield and stable production. First, set the dry. Dry high is 40-60 cm, and a total of 5-6 trunks are cultivated. The biological characteristics of the pomelo tree are different from those of other sweet oranges and red oranges. The tree is strong, the tree is tall and too large, and the result is that most or all of the mother branches are inside the canopy. We must understand these characteristics in order to master the trimming technique. Second, the result of the mother branch. The branches of the resulting branches are called the resulting female branches. Results The female branches can be divided into three types: 1. Small lateral branches on the lateral branches, which grow weakly, cannot reach the vegetative branches of the canopy. After 2-3 years of continuous growth, the branches are divided into leaves. The result is the mother branch and the result of the shoot. 2, no leaf branches, this branch flowering, germination of nutritional conditions is not enough, usually only three years before the flowering results. 3, falling flowers and fruit branches (commonly known as blinking branches), they have no germinated buds, the next year will bloom. Third, the results of the branch. It is formed by germination of a bud at the top of the mother branch or several buds nearby. As a result, the branches have leafy result branches, mosaic leaves, and leafless result branches. There is a flower with more flowers, and the result is the best in the inflorescence and the less inflorescence. Fourth, the purpose and significance of pruning. The inside of the tree canopy has good ventilation and light transmission, and the result of the inner church is full of nutrients, and the results are good and the quality is good. Fifth, the principle of pruning. Do not empty inside the outer space, the top is cut, the square is lightly cut, the outer part is re-cut, and the inside is not lightly cut. Sixth, the pruning method. Note that the weaker leafless branches on the inner side branches of the crown are preserved. These are excellent results of the mother branches; the vegetative growth is strong and the branches are too dense to be cut, and the nutrient growth is weak. 7. Trimming time and branches that should be cut. After picking the fruit, the upper vertical and vertical branches in the canopy should be cut off, and the dry branches, the diseased branches, the shaded branches and the heavy branches should be cut off. Summer shear: In the summer, the part is too dense, too strong and new, and the thin branches are short and long.
The flowering of the pomelo guarantees fruit. First, promote flowers. In order to make the fruit tree bloom early, it is necessary to control the vegetative growth of the tree potential one year before the result, and promote the growth center to turn to reproductive growth and promote flower bud differentiation: 1. Control the vertical root growth, cultivate lateral roots, parallel root growth, and promote flower bud differentiation. . 2. Support, pull, and drop the branches, increase the angle between branches and stems, weaken vegetative growth, and promote flower bud differentiation. 3, the long saplings, in the September-October 1-2 rounds of the side branches. 4. Pay attention to drainage and water control in autumn, and cut off some roots, causing physiological drought of plants to promote flower bud differentiation. Second, the fruit. 1. Increase tree nutrition, strengthen fertilizer and water management, preserve leaves as much as possible, and prevent abnormal leaves. 2. Control the amount of flowers and remove those flowers that are more deformed and more dense. 3. Regulate the spring shoots and erase the summer shoots. Excessive spring shoots, excessive consumption of nutrients will intensify the fruit drop, and the spring shoots should be regulated after the buds. Mainly the strong spring shoots (nutrition branches) in the upper part of the crown, 5 or more flower branches, and the late spring shoots are wiped off; when the summer shoots sprout new shoots, the young shoots are erased many times until the fruit is fixed in mid-July. 4, prevention and control of pests and diseases. Common pests and diseases include red-yellow spiders, leaf roller moths, and resin diseases. 5. Spray plant hormones. Such as cytokinin, phytochemical, Jinyunda-120 and so on.
Pest control of pomelo. First, the foot rot (rotten). Hazard symptoms: mainly damage the root and neck of the trunk, the bark of the main stem of the victim plant is rotted, resulting in the yellow leaves, the tree is weak, the yield is declining, and when it is serious, the whole plant is dead. The incidence rate is high during the hot and rainy season in July-August. Control methods: 1. Scrape the tissue part of the diseased department and burn it intensively. Apply a fungicide and a protective agent after scraping. 2, commonly used drugs: coated with 20-40ppm of 2.4-d and then coated with methyl thiophanate 100-200 times liquid; Bordeaux liquid slurry, that is, copper sulphate 1 kg, quicklime 3 kg, water 15 kg of mixed liquid; early onset or not At the time of onset, it was sprayed with Yunsheng 900-1100 times liquid. Second-rate gum disease. Hazard symptoms: Harm the trunk and main branches, affecting the tree potential. In severe cases, the lesions expand and "circumscribe" the trunk, causing the branches of the plant to die. Control method: first scrape the rough skin of the diseased part (now green yellow is appropriate), and then cut several slits, deep into the xylem, and then 80 times of multi-effect mold liquid or 50% thiophanate or carbendazim 100 -200 times liquid treatment. Third, red and yellow spiders. The red spider mainly harms the leaves, and the damaged leaves lose their brilliance when they are severe, which is grayish white, causing leaves and dead ends. The yellow spider damage causes the leaves to deform and twist, causing the leaves to fall. The hazard period is generally from mid-April to mid-June; September is the second hazard peak. Control methods: 1, winter clearing, spray 2-3 degrees stone sulfur mixture. 2. The medicinal agent can be sprayed with 1500 times liquid in the spring and summer to spray the germination, or spray when the insect mouth occurs. Fourth, blowing èš§, red wax èš§, çŸ¢ èš§. Hazard symptoms: Adults, larvae endanger the branches, leaves, fruits, and cause the occurrence of soot disease, the affected tree grows weak, the branches are dry, and the heavy ones die. Control methods: The key to the prevention and control of scale insects is in the larval stage, and the adults are concentrated in the formation of wax shells. The peak of the scale is from the end of March to the end of September, especially from late April to mid-May. key. It is possible to carry out spray control by dividing 1000 times of liquid. Five, leaf roller moth. Hazard symptoms: larvae damage young leaves, young fruit, flower buds, larvae often smear the young fruit and tender leaves together, drilled into the fruit to feed, so that the young fruit turns yellow off. Control methods: 1, winter clearing, removal of winter larvae. 2, drug control, focusing on the density of insects after the flowering and larvae, the drug is used 1-2 times. 3, the choice of pesticides: the enemy killed 5,000 times the emulsion; 50% dichlorvos 800-1000 times liquid; the enemy killed 800-1000 times liquid; 1500 times liquid.
Method and method of preparation of stone sulphur mixture: The target of stone sulphur mixture is powdery mildew, rust, rot, brown spot and red spider, scale insect, etc. The raw material ratio is quicklime: sulfur: water = 1:2 : 10 (weight ratio). The tanning method is to weigh 1 part of quicklime and pour it into boiled water to boil and remove the lime residue. Pour 2 parts of sulfur powder, which has been previously mixed with a small amount of water into a paste, and slowly pour it into the pot, stir while stirring, and continue to boil for another 45 minutes to one hour. When the liquid turns reddish brown, the slag is yellowish green and it can be stopped. After filtering out the slag, it is the raw material of the stone sulphur mixture. The method of use is to spray 4-5 degree dilution in winter, and use 0.2-0.3 degree Baume dilution in the growing season. If using 0.3-0.5% washing powder, the control effect is better. Add water dilution factor = (stock concentration minus use concentration) divided by use concentration = kilograms of water to be added.
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